The rally was organized by the Hong Kong Civil Assembly Team, whose spokesman is Ventus Lau, 25.
"The organizer violated the agreements in the letter without contradiction and did not help to maintain order at the public meeting".
"We want real universal suffrage", the protesters chanted.
Earlier in the day, Lau said he believes more large-scale protests are needed for global attention to return to Hong Kong, adding: "I think Hong Kong has not been the focus of the world anymore".
The bill was withdrawn, but the alleged misuse of force by the police, and the government's refusal to launch an independent inquiry into the force's conduct, have become a central grievance.
Police said in a statement two police community liaison officers were attacked with wooden sticks and sustained head injuries.
Riot police swept into the area and fired tear gas to disperse the crowds.
"It was very peaceful inside the venue but then suddenly the police grabbed the mic and announced that the rally had to end".
Anger has grown over the months due to perceptions that Beijing was tightening its grip over the city, which was handed over to China by Britain in 1997 in an deal that ensured it enjoyed liberties unavailable in the mainland.
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The protests have developed into a broader anti-government movement with demands including restarting the city's stalled political reform process.
A group of protesters chased the injured and bleeding plainclothes officers across the street, where they attempted to find safety in a building but were unable to enter because the doors were locked.
In response to the rally, Hong Kong's government released a statement outlining the "universal suffrage of "one person, one vote" as an ultimate aim" enshrined in the territory's Basic Law.
One man who refused to be searched retreated into a public restroom that was promptly surrounded by riot police.
The crowd gathered and blocked the surrounding streets with some protestors briefly barricaded roads with umbrellas, traffic cones and other street furniture. "But now, it is time to look at Hong Kong again", Mr Lau said. Police also said that some demonstrators also threw water bottles at some other cops who were carrying a "stop and search" operation.
The disagreements between democratically-minded Hong Kongers and the central government in Beijing, governed by the Communist Party, came to a head last June when the proposed extradition legislation sparked months of often violent mass demonstrations.
Critics accuse Hong Kong's police of using excessive force, with no police officer disciplined or punished in the last seven months of protests.
Some of the more violent clashes seen in Hong Kong happened at the airport and its rail link previous year as protesters organised sit-ins that led to the delays and cancellation of hundreds of flights.